Low sodium diet

What is Sodium?

Sodium is a type of mineral that is important to maintain a proper fluid balance in and around the cells in our body. Salt, which contains 40% sodium, is one of the main sources of sodium in a person’s diet. Salt is commonly found in sauces, condiments, preservatives, preserved foods and canned foods.

Sodium & Health

In some people, sodium increases blood pressure because it holds excess fluid in the body, creating an added burden to your heart. Blood pressure rises with age, and eating less sodium now will help curb that rise and reduce your risk of developing other conditions associated with too much sodium, such as stroke, heart failure, osteoporosis, stomach cancer, and kidney disease.

To prevent these problems, you may need to limit the amount of sodium in your diet.

What is my daily sodium limit?

One should take in less than 1 teaspoon (5g) of salt daily. This makes up to about 2000mg of sodium in a day.

Sodium content of commonly used seasonings

 Sauces/Seasonings Serving Size  Sodium (mg)
Salt 1 Teaspoon 2000
Stock Cube 1 Teaspoon 920
Salt Substitutes (Potassium Salt) 1 Teaspoon 865
MSG 1 Teaspoon 620
Oyster Sauce 1 Teaspoon 345
Light Soy Sauce 1 Teaspoon 365
Dark Soy Sauce 1 Teaspoon 203
Tomato Sauce 1 Teaspoon 114
 Chili Sauce 1 Teaspoon 57

Hidden forms of sodium in foods

Most sodium comes from processed food and is present in many different forms. If the first three ingredients in the food product you buy contain any of these forms of sodium, the product is likely to be high in sodium. Some examples are:

  • Rock / Sea / Iodized Salt
  • Brine
  • Monosodium Glutamate (MSG); (E621)
  • Sodium Chloride (NaCl) /Table Salt
  • Sodium Bicarbonate (Baking Soda)
  • Baking Powder
  • Sodium Nitrite
  • Sodium Benzoate

What If I eat out?

Many hawker foods can be high in sodium; however there are healthier choices available if you make the right choice.

High Sodium Choices Sodium (mg) Lower Sodium Alternatives Sodium (mg)
1 Plate Chicken Rice 1049 1 Plate White Rice with Roasted Chicken 80
1 Small Serving French Fries 190 1 Baked Potato without Cheese 17
1 Bowl of Century Egg Porridge 834 1 Bowl of Porridge with Peanut & Pork 385
1 Bowl of Mee Siam with Gravy 2659 1 Bowl of Mee Siam (Without Gravy) 1008

What about snacks?

Convenient foods/snacks are generally high in sodium. However, lower sodium alternatives are available if you look out for them.

High Sodium Choices Sodium (mg) Lower Sodium Alternatives Sodium (mg)
Curry puff (71g) 183 Egg Tart (64g) 75
Steamed Cake (60g) 160 Kuih Lapis (69g) 72
Bubur Cha Cha 128 Grass Jelly, Chin Chau 53
Cookie with Crème Filling (3 Pieces) 171 Butter Cookie (3 Pieces) 36
Pork Floss Bun (1 piece) 1328 Sugar Coated Bun (1 piece) 57

My Pantry List

High Sodium Choices Sodium (mg) Lower Sodium Alternatives Sodium (mg)
Luncheon Meat/Ham (1 Slice) 320 Fresh Lean Meat/Poultry 18
Salted Cabbage (100g) 1860 Fresh Cabbage (100g) 34
Dried Salted Plums (50g) 990 1 Small Fresh Plum 1
Curry Flavoured Instant Noodles (83g) 1498 Instant Noodles w/o any seasoning, with natural herbs (Parsley, Garlic & Pepper) (83g) 234
Salted Butter (50g) 357 Unsalted Butter (50g) 18
Tuna in Brine (100g) 298 Tuna in Water (100g) 152

Tips to reduce Sodium Intake

  • Limit sodium rich food like processed food such as luncheon meat or hot dogs and choose fresh vegetables, poultry and meat.
  • When cooking at home, use whole spices, lemon juice or natural seasonings such as shallots, onions, garlic and parsley to spice up your cooking instead of adding table salt.
  • Only add salt or sauces sparingly after cooking. If necessary, taste the food before salt is added
  • Avoid having pickles, sambal belacaan, papadum or chutneys with your meals.
  • Minimize the number of times you eat out as most food sold outside is highly salted.
  • When dining out, ask for less gravy, avoid drinking the soup and limit preserved foods such as salted egg and salted fish. Also remember to request for freshly cooked items without salt, MSG or soy sauce.
  • When purchasing foods, choose foods that have the ‘Healthier Choice’ symbol or those labeled ‘Low in Sodium’ or ‘No Added Salt’.
  • Read food labels to compare similar foods per 100g and choose the lower sodium version.

 

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什么是钠?

钠是一种矿物质,人体需要钠来维持体内的液体平衡量。食盐中含有 40% 的钠,它是我们得到钠的主要来源。 酱料、调味品、防腐剂、腌制食物和罐头食品是我们日常饮食中常见的高盐食物。

 

钠与健康

钠会提高一些人的血压, 因为它会造成水分滞留在体内。体内若拥有多余的液体则会给我们的心脏带来额外的负 担。除此之外,血压也会随着年龄的增长而升高。现在开始少吃高钠的食物将有助于遏制血压的上升和减少其它 并发症,如中风、心脏衰竭、骨质疏松症、胃癌和肾脏疾病的风险。

 

钠与肾脏疾病

当肾功能衰竭时,身体维持钠及其它矿物质的平衡能力将会逐渐丧失。如果你的饮食含有高量的钠,血液中过量 的钠将会提高你的血压。不受控制的血压有可能导致心脏病发作或中风。此外,过量的钠将会影响控制血压药物 的功能,减弱这些药物的效力。体内过量的钠也可能导致:

  • 口渴
  • 水份滞留体内, 造成四肢水肿
  • 洗肾过程中的不适 为了避免这些问题,您必须控制钠的摄取

 

我一天应该摄取多少钠?

建议成人每日不可摄入超过 1 茶匙(5 克)的盐, 也就是大约 2000 毫克 的钠

 

常用调味料的钠的含量

酱料、调味料 分量 钠 (毫克)
1 茶匙 2000
味精块 1 茶匙 920
替代盐(钾盐) 1 茶匙 865
谷氨酸鈉 (味精) (MSG) 1 茶匙 620
蚝油 1 茶匙 345
酱清 1 茶匙 365
酱油 1 茶匙 203
番茄酱 1 茶匙 114
辣椒酱 1 茶匙 57

 

隐藏在食品中的钠

大多数的钠来自于加工食品。阅读食品标签时,如果首三个食品原料中含有钠的成分, 该产品就很可能含有高 的钠。它们以不同的形式出现在不同的食物里。一些例子如:

  • 石盐、海盐、碘盐
  • 盐水
  • 谷氨酸鈉或味精 (MSG); (E621)
  • 氯化钠 (NaCl) /餐桌盐
  • 碳酸氢钠(小苏打)
  • 苏打粉
  • 亚硝酸钠
  • 苯甲酸钠

 

在外用餐时,应该如何选择低钠食物?
许多小贩中心的食物都含有高量的钠, 但也有一些比较健康的选择。

高纳的选择 钠 (毫克) 低钠的选择 钠 (毫克)
1 盘鸡饭 * 1049 1 盘白饭及烧鸡* 80
1 小份薯條* 190 1 个烤马玲薯(无芝士)* 17
1 碗皮蛋粥* 834 1 碗花生猪肉粥* 385
1 碗米暹(包括汤汁)* 2659 1 碗米暹 (不包括汤汁)* 1008

 

如何选择低钠的点心呢?
方便食品或零食一般都含有很高的钠。然而,如果您仔细地选择, 您可以找到较低钠的食物。

高纳的选择 钠 (毫克) 低钠的选择 钠 (毫克)
咖哩角 (71 克)* 183 蛋塔(64 克)* 75
蒸蛋糕 (60 克) 160 九层糕 (69 克) 72
摩摩喳喳* 128 青草 53
夹心奇曲饼(3 块) 171 牛油饼 (3块 ) 36
肉松面包* (1 个) 1328 甜面包(1 块) 57

 

购物清单

高纳的选择 钠 (毫克) 低钠的选择 钠 (毫克)
午餐肉/火腿 (1 片)* 320 鲜瘦肉/家禽 18
咸菜(100 克)* 1860 包菜(100g) 34
咸梅干(50 克)* 990 新鲜梅子(1 个) 1
咖哩快熟面 (83 克) 1498 快熟面, 无调味料, 但使用天然香料 (香菜,大蒜和胡椒) (83 克) 234
咸牛油(50 克) 357 无盐牛油 (50 克) 18
盐浸金枪鱼(100 克) 298 水浸金枪鱼(100 克) 152

* 肾脏病患须注意, 这些食物可能含有很高的钾和磷酸盐

 

减少钠的小贴士

  • 减少摄取高钠的食物如加工食品,例如午餐肉或香肠.。多选择新鲜的蔬菜、水果和肉类。
  • 在家烹煮时,使用未研磨的香料、柠檬汁或天然调味料如青葱、洋葱、蒜米和香菜来取代食盐以提升食物 的味道。
  • 在烹煮后才加入食盐或酱料可降低盐分的使用量。 如有需要, 在加入食盐之前先尝一尝您的食物。
  • 肾脏病患不适合食用代替盐因为它含有很高的钾。
  • 避免摄取腌制品、参巴酱(sambal belacaan)、印式薄饼(papadum)或印式酸辣酱(chutney)。
  • 减少出外用餐因为外面的食物大多数都含有很高的盐分。
  • 当您出外用餐时, 可以要求少汁,避免饮用汤还有尽量少吃腌制品如咸蛋和咸鱼。您也可以要求使用新鲜的食材,不要添加盐、味精或酱汁。
  • 在购物时请选择那些拥有“健康选择”标签或“不含添加盐”标签的食品。
  • 在选购食物时,请阅读食物标签,并以相同食物来比较每 100 克钠的含量。请选购较低钠的食物。

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