Control in fluids
Dialysis patients can no longer excrete large quantities of fluids consumed; therefore, excess fluid can be retained in the body resulting in overloading of the blood circulation. Symptoms such as shortness of breath, high blood pressure and swelling of the legs can occur. Thus, both peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis patients will need to consider urine output, remaining kidney function, and body size to restrict their fluid intake. Hemodialysis patients may keep track of weight gain in between two dialysis sessions as a gauge.
Daily allowance for fluid intake can vary from 500ml to 1000 ml per day, depending on the patient’s urine output. Limited urine output does not indicate dehydration in dialysis patients. However, it is an indication of further deterioration of kidney functions.
Your daily fluid allowance includes plain water, tea, coffee, milk, gravy, soup and porridge. Other fluids that are liquid at room temperature such as ice-cube, ice cream, jellies are considered as fluid too.
Read more about fluid
Prevention of Anemia
Anemia is common among dialysis patients and it appears to be more common in those who suffer from malnutrition or protein energy wasting. Symptoms of anemia include fatigue, weakness, dizziness, headache, low immunity, breathless or shortness of breath, chest pain, low appetite and pale.
Anemia of chronic kidney disease is one of the complications of kidney failure. Its severity can be related to how well the kidney is functioning. The main reason for anemia among chronic disease patients is the reduced production of erythropoietin (EPO) by the kidneys. EPO prompts the bone marrow to make red blood cells. When the kidney’s function is decreasing, the amount of EPO produced will be reduced. Other factors that cause anemia among dialysis patients are:
- Reduced red blood cell lifespan due to accumulated urea toxic
- Lack of iron
- Lack of folate and other vitamins
- Blood loss during haemodialysis
Adequate intake of protein, iron, vitamin C, vitamin B 12 and folate are important in preventing and treating anemia as these nutrients are the important elements in making new red blood cells.
*The above information and recommendations are general guidelines, and should not be viewed as specific advice for any individual. Please consult your physician or other health care advisors for personal health decisions.