In the dominant PKD form, one parent has the disease and passes it to the child. The chance of passing the gene to the offspring is 50%. There are instances of spontaneous genetic mutations whereby the parents do not carry the flawed gene but the offspring is still afflicted with the condition. This genetic flaw causes the development of multiple cysts to evolve from the nephrons. Cysts are abnormal pouches containing fluid. Eventually the cysts replace normal kidney tissue and the person with this condition suffers kidney failure. Cysts also develop in the liver and pancreas.