Diabetic kidney disease (diabetic nephropathy) is common in long standing diabetics especially in those with poor control of the condition. Diabetes damages blood vessels throughout the body and this includes the kidney. Diabetic nephropathy occurs in both types of diabetes – the insulin requiring (type I) and the non-insulin requiring (type II) diabetics. The occurrence of high blood pressure in diabetics is a strong predictor for diabetic nephropathy. For those with existing diabetic nephropathy, uncontrolled blood pressure will aggravate and hasten the progression of this disease to end-stage kidney failure. Those who have a family history (having family members with this condition) are at higher risk of being afflicted with this condition. It is the most common cause of End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) in many developed countries (and is true in Singapore as well).